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Delaware Nation News Ticker VideoThe Lenape Culture - Medicine
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As the 18th century progressed, many surviving Lenape moved west—into the relatively empty [c] upper Ohio River basin. Smallpox devastated Native American communities even located far from European settlements by the s.
New Amsterdam was founded in by the Dutch in what would later become New York City. Dutch settlers also founded a colony at present-day Lewes , Delaware on June 3, and named it Zwaanendael Swan Valley.
They defeated the Lenape, and some scholars believe that the Lenape may have become tributaries to the Susquehannock. The Lenape's quick adoption of trade goods, and their desire to trap furs to meet high European demand, resulted in their disastrous over-harvesting of the beaver population in the lower Hudson Valley.
With the fur sources exhausted, the Dutch shifted their operations to present-day upstate New York. The Lenape who produced wampum in the vicinity of Manhattan Island temporarily forestalled the negative effects of the decline in trade.
The Lenape had a culture in which the clan and family controlled property. Europeans often tried to contract for land with the tribal chiefs, confusing their culture with that of neighboring tribes such as the Iroquois.
All of these added complexities in kinship terms made agreements with Europeans all the more difficult.
The Dutch finally established a garrison at Bergen , which allowed settlement west of the Hudson within the province of New Netherland.
This land was purchased from the Lenape after the fact. In , William Penn and Quaker colonists created the English colony of Pennsylvania beginning at the lower Delaware River.
A peace treaty was negotiated between the newly arriving English and Lenape at what is now known as Penn Treaty Park. In the decades immediately following, some 20, new colonists arrived in the region, putting pressure on Lenape settlements and hunting grounds.
Penn expected his authority and that of the colonial government to take precedence. His new colony effectively displaced many Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands.
Penn gained a reputation for benevolence and tolerance, but his efforts resulted in more effective colonization of the ancestral Lenape homeland than previous ones.
William Penn died in His heirs, John and Thomas Penn, and their agents were running the colony, and had abandoned many of the elder Penn's practices.
Trying to raise money, they contemplated ways to sell Lenape land to colonial settlers. The resulting scheme culminated in the so-called Walking Purchase.
In the mids, colonial administrators produced a draft of a land deed dating to the s. William Penn had approached several leaders of Lenape polities in the lower Delaware to discuss land sales further north.
Since the land in question did not belong to their polities, the talks came to nothing. But colonial administrators had prepared the draft that resurfaced in the s.
The Penns and their supporters tried to present this draft as a legitimate deed. Lenape leaders in the lower Delaware refused to accept it.
According to historian Steven Harper , what followed was a "convoluted sequence of deception, fraud, and extortion orchestrated by the Pennsylvania government that is commonly known as the Walking Purchase.
Some Lenape polities eventually retaliated by attacking Pennsylvania settlements. When they fought British colonial expansion to a standstill at the height of the Seven Years' War , the British government investigated the causes of Lenape resentment.
The British asked William Johnson , Superintendent of Indian Affairs, to lead the investigation. Johnson had become wealthy as a trader and acquired thousands of acres of land in the Mohawk River Valley from the Iroquois Mohawk of New York.
Beginning in the 18th century, the Moravian Church established missions among the Lenape. The Moravians' insistence on Christian Lenapes' abandoning traditional warfare practices alienated mission populations from other Lenape and Native American groups, who revered warriors.
The Moravian Lenape who settled permanently in Ontario after the American Revolutionary War were sometimes referred to as " Christian Munsee ", as they mostly spoke the Munsee branch of the Delaware language.
During the French and Indian War , the Lenape initially sided with the French, as they hoped to prevent further British colonial encroachment in their territory.
But, such leaders as Teedyuscung in the east and Tamaqua in the vicinity of modern Pittsburgh shifted to building alliances with the English.
After the end of the war, however, Anglo-American settlers continued to kill Lenape, often to such an extent that the historian Amy Schutt writes the dead since the wars outnumbered those killed during the war.
The Treaty of Easton , signed in between the Lenape and the Anglo-American colonists, required the Lenape to move westward, out of present-day New York and New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, then Ohio and beyond.
Sporadically they continued to raid European-American settlers from far outside the area. In Bill Hickman, Lenape, warned English colonists in the Juniata River region of an impending attack.
Many Lenape joined in Pontiac's War , and were numerous among those Native Americans who besieged Pittsburgh. In April Teedyuscung was killed when his home was burned.
His son Captain Bull responded by attacking settlers from New England who had migrated to the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. The settlers had been sponsored by the Susquehanna Company.
The Lenape were the first Indian tribe to enter into a treaty with the new United States government, with the Treaty of Fort Pitt signed in during the American Revolutionary War.
By then living mostly in the Ohio Country , the Lenape supplied the Continental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for food supplies and security.
After the signing of the Treaty of Easton in , the Lenape were forced to move west out of their original lands into what is today known as Ohio.
During the early s, missionaries, including David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, arrived in the Ohio Country near the Delaware villages. The Moravian Church sent these men to convert the Indigenous peoples to Christianity.
The missionaries established several missions, including Gnadenhutten, Lichtenau, and Schoenbrunn. The missionaries pressured Indigenous people to abandon their traditional customs, beliefs, and ways of life, and to replace them with European and Christian ways.
Many Lenape did adopt Christianity, but others refused to do so. The Lenape became a divided people during the s, including in Killbuck's [ clarification needed ] family.
Killbuck resented his grandfather for allowing the Moravians to remain in the Ohio territory. The Moravians believed in pacifism, and Killbuck believed that every convert to the Moravians deprived the Lenape of a warrior to stop further white settlement of their land.
At the time of the American Revolution, the Lenape in Ohio were deeply divided over which side, if any, to take in the war.
During this time, the Lenape bands were living in numerous villages around their main village of Coshocton ,  between the western frontier strongholds of the British and the Patriots.
The American colonists had Fort Pitt present-day Pittsburgh and the British, along with Indian allies, controlled the area of Fort Detroit in present-day Michigan.
During the French and Indian War, Killbuck had assisted the English against their French enemy. In , Killbuck led an English supply train from Fort Pitt to Fort Sandusky.
When The American Revolution began, Killbuck found his people caught between the English in the West and the Americans in the East.
At the war's beginning, Killbuck and many Lenape claimed to be neutral. In , Killbuck permitted American soldiers to traverse Delaware territory so that the soldiers could attack Fort Detroit.
In return, Killbuck requested that the Americans build a fort near the Natives' major village of Coshocton to provide the Delaware with protection from English attacks.
The Americans agreed and built Fort Laurens, which they garrisoned. Other Indian communities, especially the Wyandot , the Mingo , the Munsee , the Shawnee , and the Wolf Clan of the Delaware, favored the British.
They believed that by their proclamation of , restricting Anglo-American settlement to east of the Appalachian Mountains, that the British would help them preserve a Native American territory.
The British planned to attack Fort Laurens in early and demanded that the neutral Delawares formally side with the British.
Killbuck warned the Americans of the planned attack. His actions helped save the fort, but the Americans abandoned it in August The Delaware had lost their protectors and, in theory, faced attacks from the British, their native allies, and the American settlers who flooded into the area in the late s and early s after the war.
Most Delaware formally joined the British after the American withdrawal from Fort Laurens. Some Lenape decided to take up arms against the American colonials and moved to the west, closer to Detroit, where they settled on the Scioto and Sandusky rivers.
Those Lenape sympathetic to the United States remained at Coshocton, and Lenape leaders signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt with the American colonists. Through this treaty, the Lenape hoped to establish the Ohio territory as a state inhabited exclusively by Native Americans, as a subset of the new United States.
A third group of Lenape, many of them converted Christian Munsees , lived in several mission villages run by Moravians. Like the other bands, they also spoke the Munsee branch of Delaware, an Algonquian language.
White Eyes , the Lenape chief who had negotiated the treaty, died in Many Lenape at Coshocton eventually joined the war against the Americans.
In response, Colonel Daniel Brodhead led an expedition out of Fort Pitt and on 19 April destroyed Coshocton.
Surviving residents fled to the north. Colonel Brodhead convinced the militia to leave the Lenape at the Moravian mission villages unmolested, since they were unarmed non-combatants.
The amateur anthropologist Silas Wood published a book claiming that there were several American Indian tribes that were distinct to Long Island, New York.
He collectively called them the Metoac. Modern scientific scholarship has shown that two linguistic groups representing two Algonquian cultural identities lived on the island, not "13 individual tribes" as asserted by Wood.
The bands to the west were Lenape. Those to the east were more related culturally to the Algonquian tribes of New England across Long Island Sound, such as the Pequot.
Over a period of years, European settlers pushed the Lenape out of the East Coast and Ohio and pressed them to move further west.
Most members of the Munsee -language branch of the Lenape left the United States after the British were defeated in the American Revolutionary War.
Their descendants live on three Indian reserves in Western Ontario , Canada. They are descendants of those Lenape of Ohio Country who sided with the British during the Revolutionary War.
The largest reserve is at Moraviantown, Ontario , where the Turtle Phratry settled in following the war. Two groups migrated to Oneida County, New York by , the Brotherton Indians of New Jersey and the Stockbridge-Munsee.
After , they removed to Wisconsin, under pressure from state and local governments. By the Treaty of St. Mary's, signed October 3, in St.
The Delaware Village in Indiana was called Anderson's Town, while the Delaware Village in Missouri on the James River was often called Anderson's Village.
The tribes' cabins and cornfields were spread out along the James River and Wilsons Creek. Many Delaware participated in the exploration of the western United States, working as trappers with the mountain men , and as guides and hunters for wagon trains.
From California, Fremont needed to communicate with Senator Benton. Sagundai volunteered to carry the message through some 2, kilometres of hostile territory.
He took many scalps in this adventure, including that of a Comanche with a particularly fine horse, who had outrun both Sagundai and the other Comanche.
Sagundai was thrown when his horse stepped into a prairie-dog hole, but avoided the Comanche's lance, shot the warrior dead, and caught his horse and escaped the other Comanche.
When Sagundai returned to his own people in present-day Kansas, they celebrated his exploits with the last war and scalp dances of their history, which were held at Edwardsville, Kansas.
By the terms of the "Treaty of the James Fork" made September 24, , and ratified by the U. Senate in , the Delaware were forced to move further west.
They were granted lands in Indian Territory in exchange for lands on the James Fork of the White River in Missouri. These lands, in what is now Kansas, were west of the Missouri and north of the Kansas River.
In Congress passed the Kansas—Nebraska Act , which created the Territory of Kansas and opened the area for white settlement.
It also authorized negotiation with Indian tribes regarding removal. The Delaware were reluctant to negotiate for yet another relocation, but they feared serious trouble with white settlers, and conflict developed.
As the Delaware were not considered United States citizens, they had no access to the courts and no way to enforce their property rights. The United States Army was to enforce their rights to reservation land after the Indian Agent had both posted a public notice warning trespassers and served written notice on them, a process generally considered onerous.
Major B. Robinson, the Indian Agent appointed in , did his best, but could not control the hundreds of white trespassers who stole stock, cut timber, and built houses and squatted on Delaware lands.
By the Delaware had reached consensus to leave Kansas, which was in accord with the government's Indian removal policy. The main body of Lenape arrived in Indian Territory in the s.
A court dispute followed over whether the sale included rights for the Delaware as citizens within the Cherokee Nation.
While the dispute was unsettled, the Curtis Act of dissolved tribal governments and ordered the allotment of communal tribal lands to individual households of members of tribes.
The Delaware remained friendly after Texas won its independence. Republic of Texas President, Sam Houston favored a policy of peaceful relations with all tribes.
He sought the services of the friendly Delaware and in enlisted several Delaware to protect the frontier from hostile western tribes. Delaware scouts joined with Texas Rangers as they patrolled the western frontier.
The Delaware Nation at Moraviantown is one of the oldest settlements in the region, as it was founded in Our community played an integral part in the War of , as we stood next to Tecumseh and other allied forces, both First Nation and British to hold our ground against invading American soldiers.
But we would pay a price for our allegiance, as our original village, located on the north side of the Thames River, was burned to the ground by retreating American soldiers at the close of the war.
Today, our community is located on the south side of the river, however some of the first buildings rebuilt after the war continue to stand today; a mission church and home stand as testament to our resiliency.
CKBK broadcasts a mixture of news, community events, weather, music and old-time stories, which are broadcast in English as well as Lunaapeew, the Indigenous Language of the Delaware.
Delaware Nation Executive Committee has made the decision to CLOSE the tribal offices for the remainder of this week and will reopen on January 11, , due to the increased number of positive COVID cases.
NOTICE: Call For Election June 19th, Posted by Wesley Boone Jan 4, Job Postings , News. Posted by Wesley Boone Nov 23, Community Health Representative , News.
DNI Stakeholder Meeting is Postponed Posted by Wesley Boone Nov 18, COVID , News. October Special General Council Meeting Report Posted by Wesley Boone Oct 22, , Executive Committee , News.
Happy Delaware Nation Day! Posted by Wesley Boone Oct 12, News.Through this grant Delaware Nation will be able enhance our community by providing members of our community access to fresh fruits and vegetables through a community garden. To find out more about the program and the other grantees check out pandorasgardensg.com Get in touch and we’ll get back to you as soon as we can. We look forward to hearing from you!