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Many translated example sentences containing "pragmatic" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Université de Genève; CLS = Papers from the Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society; JoP = Journal of Pragmatics.] Abraham, W. The. Pragmatic Play ist ein Anbieter von Spielprodukten für die iGaming-Industrie und bietet innovative und regulierte Spielprodukte an.

"pragmatic" translation into German

Université de Genève; CLS = Papers from the Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society; JoP = Journal of Pragmatics.] Abraham, W. The. Pragmatic Play ist ein Anbieter von Spielprodukten für die iGaming-Industrie und bietet innovative und regulierte Spielprodukte an. I believe, however, that we ought to be pragmatic, and avoid succumbing to hypocrisy. Sie können gleichzeitig phantasievoll und pragmatisch sein.

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It is not realist in a traditionally robust sense of realism what Hilary Putnam later called metaphysical realism , but it is realist in how it acknowledges an external world which must be dealt with.

Many of James' best-turned phrases—"truth's cash value" James , p. William James wrote:. It is high time to urge the use of a little imagination in philosophy.

The unwillingness of some of our critics to read any but the silliest of possible meanings into our statements is as discreditable to their imaginations as anything I know in recent philosophic history.

Schiller says the truth is that which "works. Dewey says truth is what gives "satisfaction"! He is treated as one who believes in calling everything true which, if it were true, would be pleasant.

James , p. The role of belief in representing reality is widely debated in pragmatism. Is a belief valid when it represents reality?

Are beliefs dispositions which qualify as true or false depending on how helpful they prove in inquiry and in action? Is it only in the struggle of intelligent organisms with the surrounding environment that beliefs acquire meaning?

Does a belief only become true when it succeeds in this struggle? In James's pragmatism nothing practical or useful is held to be necessarily true nor is anything which helps to survive merely in the short term.

For example, to believe my cheating spouse is faithful may help me feel better now, but it is certainly not useful from a more long-term perspective because it doesn't accord with the facts and is therefore not true.

While pragmatism started simply as a criterion of meaning, it quickly expanded to become a full-fledged epistemology with wide-ranging implications for the entire philosophical field.

Pragmatists who work in these fields share a common inspiration, but their work is diverse and there are no received views.

In the philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments and progress in science cannot be couched in terms of concepts and theories somehow mirroring reality.

Instrumentalist philosophers often define scientific progress as nothing more than an improvement in explaining and predicting phenomena.

Instrumentalism does not state that truth does not matter, but rather provides a specific answer to the question of what truth and falsity mean and how they function in science.

One of C. Lewis ' main arguments in Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge was that science does not merely provide a copy of reality but must work with conceptual systems and that those are chosen for pragmatic reasons, that is, because they aid inquiry.

Lewis' own development of multiple modal logics is a case in point. Lewis is sometimes called a proponent of conceptual pragmatism because of this.

Another development is the cooperation of logical positivism and pragmatism in the works of Charles W. Morris and Rudolf Carnap.

The influence of pragmatism on these writers is mostly limited to the incorporation of the pragmatic maxim into their epistemology.

Pragmatists with a broader conception of the movement do not often refer to them. Quine 's paper " Two Dogmas of Empiricism ", published in , is one of the more celebrated papers of 20th-century philosophy in the analytic tradition.

The paper is an attack on two central tenets of the logical positivists' philosophy. One is the distinction between analytic statements tautologies and contradictions whose truth or falsehood is a function of the meanings of the words in the statement 'all bachelors are unmarried' , and synthetic statements, whose truth or falsehood is a function of contingent states of affairs.

The other is reductionism, the theory that each meaningful statement gets its meaning from some logical construction of terms which refers exclusively to immediate experience.

Quine's argument brings to mind Peirce's insistence that axioms are not a priori truths but synthetic statements.

Later in his life Schiller became famous for his attacks on logic in his textbook, Formal Logic. By then, Schiller's pragmatism had become the nearest of any of the classical pragmatists to an ordinary language philosophy.

Schiller sought to undermine the very possibility of formal logic, by showing that words only had meaning when used in context. The least famous of Schiller's main works was the constructive sequel to his destructive book Formal Logic.

In this sequel, Logic for Use , Schiller attempted to construct a new logic to replace the formal logic that he had criticized in Formal Logic.

What he offers is something philosophers would recognize today as a logic covering the context of discovery and the hypothetico-deductive method.

Whereas Schiller dismissed the possibility of formal logic, most pragmatists are critical rather of its pretension to ultimate validity and see logic as one logical tool among others—or perhaps, considering the multitude of formal logics, one set of tools among others.

This is the view of C. Peirce developed multiple methods for doing formal logic. Stephen Toulmin 's The Uses of Argument inspired scholars in informal logic and rhetoric studies although it is an epistemological work.

James and Dewey were empirical thinkers in the most straightforward fashion: experience is the ultimate test and experience is what needs to be explained.

They were dissatisfied with ordinary empiricism because, in the tradition dating from Hume, empiricists had a tendency to think of experience as nothing more than individual sensations.

To the pragmatists, this went against the spirit of empiricism: we should try to explain all that is given in experience including connections and meaning, instead of explaining them away and positing sense data as the ultimate reality.

Radical empiricism , or Immediate Empiricism in Dewey's words, wants to give a place to meaning and value instead of explaining them away as subjective additions to a world of whizzing atoms.

The two were supposed, he said, to have so little to do with each other, that you could not possibly occupy your mind with them at the same time.

The world of concrete personal experiences to which the street belongs is multitudinous beyond imagination, tangled, muddy, painful and perplexed.

The world to which your philosophy-professor introduces you is simple, clean and noble. The contradictions of real life are absent from it.

In point of fact it is far less an account of this actual world than a clear addition built upon it It is no explanation of our concrete universe James , pp.

Schiller 's first book Riddles of the Sphinx was published before he became aware of the growing pragmatist movement taking place in America. In it, Schiller argues for a middle ground between materialism and absolute metaphysics.

These opposites are comparable to what William James called tough-minded empiricism and tender-minded rationalism. Schiller contends on the one hand that mechanistic naturalism cannot make sense of the "higher" aspects of our world.

These include free will, consciousness, purpose, universals and some would add God. On the other hand, abstract metaphysics cannot make sense of the "lower" aspects of our world e.

While Schiller is vague about the exact sort of middle ground he is trying to establish, he suggests that metaphysics is a tool that can aid inquiry, but that it is valuable only insofar as it does help in explanation.

In the second half of the 20th century, Stephen Toulmin argued that the need to distinguish between reality and appearance only arises within an explanatory scheme and therefore that there is no point in asking what "ultimate reality" consists of.

More recently, a similar idea has been suggested by the postanalytic philosopher Daniel Dennett , who argues that anyone who wants to understand the world has to acknowledge both the "syntactical" aspects of reality i.

Radical empiricism gives answers to questions about the limits of science, the nature of meaning and value and the workability of reductionism. These questions feature prominently in current debates about the relationship between religion and science , where it is often assumed—most pragmatists would disagree—that science degrades everything that is meaningful into "merely" physical phenomena.

Both John Dewey in Experience and Nature and half a century later Richard Rorty in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature argued that much of the debate about the relation of the mind to the body results from conceptual confusions.

They argue instead that there is no need to posit the mind or mindstuff as an ontological category. Pragmatists disagree over whether philosophers ought to adopt a quietist or a naturalist stance toward the mind-body problem.

The former Rorty among them want to do away with the problem because they believe it's a pseudo-problem, whereas the latter believe that it is a meaningful empirical question.

Pragmatism sees no fundamental difference between practical and theoretical reason, nor any ontological difference between facts and values.

Pragmatist ethics is broadly humanist because it sees no ultimate test of morality beyond what matters for us as humans.

Good values are those for which we have good reasons, viz. The pragmatist formulation pre-dates those of other philosophers who have stressed important similarities between values and facts such as Jerome Schneewind and John Searle.

William James' contribution to ethics, as laid out in his essay The Will to Believe has often been misunderstood as a plea for relativism or irrationality.

On its own terms it argues that ethics always involves a certain degree of trust or faith and that we cannot always wait for adequate proof when making moral decisions.

Moral questions immediately present themselves as questions whose solution cannot wait for sensible proof. A moral question is a question not of what sensibly exists, but of what is good, or would be good if it did exist.

A social organism of any sort whatever, large or small, is what it is because each member proceeds to his own duty with a trust that the other members will simultaneously do theirs.

Wherever a desired result is achieved by the co-operation of many independent persons, its existence as a fact is a pure consequence of the precursive faith in one another of those immediately concerned.

A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, but nothing is even attempted.

The Will to Believe James Of the classical pragmatists, John Dewey wrote most extensively about morality and democracy.

Edel In his classic article "Three Independent Factors in Morals" Dewey , he tried to integrate three basic philosophical perspectives on morality: the right, the virtuous and the good.

He held that while all three provide meaningful ways to think about moral questions, the possibility of conflict among the three elements cannot always be easily solved.

Anderson, SEP. Dewey also criticized the dichotomy between means and ends which he saw as responsible for the degradation of our everyday working lives and education, both conceived as merely a means to an end.

He stressed the need for meaningful labor and a conception of education that viewed it not as a preparation for life but as life itself. Dewey [] ch.

Dewey was opposed to other ethical philosophies of his time, notably the emotivism of Alfred Ayer. Dewey envisioned the possibility of ethics as an experimental discipline, and thought values could best be characterized not as feelings or imperatives, but as hypotheses about what actions will lead to satisfactory results or what he termed consummatory experience.

An additional implication of this view is that ethics is a fallible undertaking because human beings are frequently unable to know what would satisfy them.

During the late s and first decade of , pragmatism was embraced by many in the field of bioethics led by the philosophers John Lachs and his student Glenn McGee , whose book The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetic Engineering see designer baby garnered praise from within classical American philosophy and criticism from bioethics for its development of a theory of pragmatic bioethics and its rejection of the principalism theory then in vogue in medical ethics.

An anthology published by the MIT Press titled Pragmatic Bioethics included the responses of philosophers to that debate, including Micah Hester, Griffin Trotter and others many of whom developed their own theories based on the work of Dewey, Peirce, Royce and others.

Lachs developed several applications of pragmatism to bioethics independent of but extending from the work of Dewey and James.

A recent pragmatist contribution to meta-ethics is Todd Lekan's Making Morality Lekan Lekan argues that morality is a fallible but rational practice and that it has traditionally been misconceived as based on theory or principles.

Instead, he argues, theory and rules arise as tools to make practice more intelligent. John Dewey's Art as Experience , based on the William James lectures he delivered at Harvard University, was an attempt to show the integrity of art, culture and everyday experience IEP.

Art, for Dewey, is or should be a part of everyone's creative lives and not just the privilege of a select group of artists.

He also emphasizes that the audience is more than a passive recipient. Dewey's treatment of art was a move away from the transcendental approach to aesthetics in the wake of Immanuel Kant who emphasized the unique character of art and the disinterested nature of aesthetic appreciation.

A notable contemporary pragmatist aesthetician is Joseph Margolis. He defines a work of art as "a physically embodied, culturally emergent entity", a human "utterance" that isn't an ontological quirk but in line with other human activity and culture in general.

He emphasizes that works of art are complex and difficult to fathom, and that no determinate interpretation can be given.

Both Dewey and James investigated the role that religion can still play in contemporary society, the former in A Common Faith and the latter in The Varieties of Religious Experience.

From a general point of view, for William James, something is true only insofar as it works. Thus, the statement, for example, that prayer is heard may work on a psychological level but a may not help to bring about the things you pray for b may be better explained by referring to its soothing effect than by claiming prayers are heard.

As such, pragmatism is not antithetical to religion but it is not an apologetic for faith either. James' metaphysical position however, leaves open the possibility that the ontological claims of religions may be true.

As he observed in the end of the Varieties, his position does not amount to a denial of the existence of transcendent realities. Quite the contrary, he argued for the legitimate epistemic right to believe in such realities, since such beliefs do make a difference in an individual's life and refer to claims that cannot be verified or falsified either on intellectual or common sensorial grounds.

Joseph Margolis in Historied Thought, Constructed World California, makes a distinction between "existence" and "reality". He suggests using the term "exists" only for those things which adequately exhibit Peirce's Secondness : things which offer brute physical resistance to our movements.

In this way, such things which affect us, like numbers, may be said to be "real", although they do not "exist". Margolis suggests that God, in such a linguistic usage, might very well be "real", causing believers to act in such and such a way, but might not "exist".

Neopragmatism is a broad contemporary category used for various thinkers that incorporate important insights of, and yet significantly diverge from, the classical pragmatists.

This divergence may occur either in their philosophical methodology many of them are loyal to the analytic tradition or in conceptual formation: for example, conceptual pragmatist C.

Lewis was very critical of Dewey; neopragmatist Richard Rorty disliked Peirce. Important analytic pragmatists include early Richard Rorty who was the first to develop neopragmatist philosophy in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature , [22] Hilary Putnam , W.

Quine , and Donald Davidson. Brazilian social thinker Roberto Unger advocates for a radical pragmatism , one that "de-naturalizes" society and culture, and thus insists that we can "transform the character of our relation to social and cultural worlds we inhabit rather than just to change, little by little, the content of the arrangements and beliefs that comprise them".

Neopragmatist thinkers who are more loyal to classical pragmatism include Sidney Hook and Susan Haack known for the theory of foundherentism.

Many pragmatist ideas especially those of Peirce find a natural expression in the decision-theoretic reconstruction of epistemology pursued in the work of Isaac Levi.

Nicholas Rescher advocates his version of methodological pragmatism , based on construing pragmatic efficacy not as a replacement for truths but as a means to its evidentiation.

Not all pragmatists are easily characterized. With the advent of postanalytic philosophy and the diversification of Anglo-American philosophy, many philosophers were influenced by pragmatist thought without necessarily publicly committing themselves to that philosophical school.

Daniel Dennett , a student of Quine's, falls into this category, as does Stephen Toulmin , who arrived at his philosophical position via Wittgenstein , whom he calls "a pragmatist of a sophisticated kind" foreword for Dewey in the edition, p.

Another example is Mark Johnson whose embodied philosophy Lakoff and Johnson shares its psychologism, direct realism and anti-cartesianism with pragmatism.

Conceptual pragmatism is a theory of knowledge originating with the work of the philosopher and logician Clarence Irving Lewis.

The epistemology of conceptual pragmatism was first formulated in the book Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge.

It often is seen as opposed to structural problems connected to the French critical theory of Pierre Bourdieu. French pragmatism has more recently made inroads into American sociology as well.

Philosophers John R. Shook and Tibor Solymosi said that "each new generation rediscovers and reinvents its own versions of pragmatism by applying the best available practical and scientific methods to philosophical problems of contemporary concern".

In the 20th century, the movements of logical positivism and ordinary language philosophy have similarities with pragmatism. Like pragmatism, logical positivism provides a verification criterion of meaning that is supposed to rid us of nonsense metaphysics; however, logical positivism doesn't stress action as pragmatism does.

The pragmatists rarely used their maxim of meaning to rule out all metaphysics as nonsense. Usually, pragmatism was put forth to correct metaphysical doctrines or to construct empirically verifiable ones rather than to provide a wholesale rejection.

Ordinary language philosophy is closer to pragmatism than other philosophy of language because of its nominalist character although Peirce's pragmatism is not nominalist [13] and because it takes the broader functioning of language in an environment as its focus instead of investigating abstract relations between language and world.

Pragmatism has ties to process philosophy. Much of the classical pragmatists' work developed in dialogue with process philosophers such as Henri Bergson and Alfred North Whitehead , who aren't usually considered pragmatists because they differ so much on other points Douglas Browning et al.

Behaviorism and functionalism in psychology and sociology also have ties to pragmatism, which is not surprising considering that James and Dewey were both scholars of psychology and that Mead became a sociologist.

Pragmatism emphasizes the connection between thought and action. Applied fields like public administration , [29] political science , [30] leadership studies, [31] international relations , [32] conflict resolution, [33] and research methodology [34] have incorporated the tenets of pragmatism in their field.

Often this connection is made using Dewey and Addams's expansive notion of democracy. In the early 20th century, Symbolic interactionism , a major perspective within sociological social psychology, was derived from pragmatism, especially the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley , as well as that of Peirce and William James.

Increasing attention is being given to pragmatist epistemology in other branches of the social sciences, which have struggled with divisive debates over the status of social scientific knowledge.

Enthusiasts suggest that pragmatism offers an approach that is both pluralist and practical. The classical pragmatism of John Dewey , William James , and Charles Sanders Peirce has influenced research in the field of public administration.

Scholars claim classical pragmatism had a profound influence on the origin of the field of public administration. Public administrators are also responsible for the day-to-day work with citizens.

Dewey's participatory democracy can be applied in this environment. Dewey and James' notion of theory as a tool, helps administrators craft theories to resolve policy and administrative problems.

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By rules of use, it is meant that indexicals can tell you when they are used, but not what they actually mean. As mentioned, these meanings are brought about through the relationship between the signified and the signifier.

One way to define the relationship is by placing signs in two categories: referential indexical signs, also called "shifters," and pure indexical signs.

Referential indexical signs are signs where the meaning shifts depending on the context hence the nickname "shifters. The referential aspect of its meaning would be '1st person singular' while the indexical aspect would be the person who is speaking refer above for definitions of semantic-referential and indexical meaning.

Another example would be:. A pure indexical sign does not contribute to the meaning of the propositions at all. It is an example of a "non-referential use of language.

A second way to define the signified and signifier relationship is C. Peirce 's Peircean Trichotomy. The components of the trichotomy are the following:.

These relationships allow us to use signs to convey what we want to say. If two people were in a room and one of them wanted to refer to a characteristic of a chair in the room he would say "this chair has four legs" instead of "a chair has four legs.

Referential uses of language are entirely collaborative within the context of discourse. Individuals engaging in discourse utilize pragmatics [21].

In addition, individuals within the scape of discourse cannot help but avoid intuitive use of certain utterances or word choices in an effort to create communicative success.

Theories have been presented for why direct referent descriptions occur in discourse. Four factors are widely accepted for the use of referent language including i competition with a possible referent, ii salience of the referent in the context of discussion iii an effort for unity of the parties involved, and finally, iv a blatant presence of distance from the last referent.

Referential expressions are a form of anaphora. Michael Silverstein has argued that "nonreferential" or "pure" indices do not contribute to an utterance's referential meaning but instead "signal some particular value of one or more contextual variables.

In all of these cases, the semantico-referential meaning of the utterances is unchanged from that of the other possible but often impermissible forms, but the pragmatic meaning is vastly different.

Austin introduced the concept of the performative , contrasted in his writing with "constative" i. According to Austin's original formulation, a performative is a type of utterance characterized by two distinctive features:.

To be performative, an utterance must conform to various conditions involving what Austin calls felicity. These deal with things like appropriate context and the speaker's authority.

For instance, when a couple has been arguing and the husband says to his wife that he accepts her apology even though she has offered nothing approaching an apology, his assertion is infelicitous: because she has made neither expression of regret nor request for forgiveness, there exists none to accept, and thus no act of accepting can possibly happen.

Roman Jakobson , expanding on the work of Karl Bühler , described six "constitutive factors" of a speech event , each of which represents the privileging of a corresponding function, and only one of which is the referential which corresponds to the context of the speech event.

The six constitutive factors and their corresponding functions are diagrammed below. There is considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics , since both share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by usage in a speech community.

However, sociolinguists tend to be more interested in variations in language within such communities. Pragmatics helps anthropologists relate elements of language to broader social phenomena; it thus pervades the field of linguistic anthropology.

Because pragmatics describes generally the forces in play for a given utterance, it includes the study of power, gender, race, identity, and their interactions with individual speech acts.

For example, the study of code switching directly relates to pragmatics, since a switch in code effects a shift in pragmatic force.

According to Charles W. Morris , pragmatics tries to understand the relationship between signs and their users, while semantics tends to focus on the actual objects or ideas to which a word refers, and syntax or "syntactics" examines relationships among signs or symbols.

Semantics is the literal meaning of an idea whereas pragmatics is the implied meaning of the given idea. Speech Act Theory , pioneered by J. Austin and further developed by John Searle , centers around the idea of the performative , a type of utterance that performs the very action it describes.

Die Pragmatik oder Pragmalinguistik beschäftigt sich in der Linguistik mit der Beschreibung von kontextabhängigen und nicht-wörtlichen Bedeutungen bei der Verwendung von sprachlichen Ausdrücken in jeweils konkreten Situationen und mit den. solving problems in a sensible way that suits the conditions that really exist now, rather than obeying fixed theories, ideas, or rules: In business, the pragmatic approach to problems is often more successful than an idealistic one. Synonym. hard-nosed. SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für pragmatic im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'pragmatic' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Pragmatic: willing to see things as they really are and deal with them sensibly. Synonyms: down-to-earth, earthy, hardheaded Antonyms: blue-sky, idealistic, impractical. The word pragmatic has been busy over its more than four centuries of use. Its earliest meanings were "busy," "meddlesome," and "opinionated," but those are now considered archaic uses. The word continues, as it has since the late 19th century, to be used in reference to the philosophical movement of pragmatism (see sense 2). Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that considers words and thought as tools and instruments for prediction, problem solving, and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. The movement is a call to action for studios to make movies, for artists to paint pictures, and for anyone with access to the means of creation and communication to participate in the most pragmatic form of dreaming. Solarpunk Is Growing a Gorgeous New World in the Cracks of the Old One Carin Ism September 6, Singularity Hub. The pragmatic meaning of an idea, belief, or proposition is said to reside in the distinct class of specific experimental or practical consequences that result from the use, application, or entertainment of the notion. As Peirce commented, “Our idea of anything is our idea of its sensible effects.”.
Paragmatic Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pragmatism. Josiah Yugioh Quasarschnuppen Drache — colleague of James at Harvard who employed pragmatism in an idealist metaphysical framework, he was particularly interested in the Schach Spielen Online Gratis of religion and community; his work is often associated Paragmatic neo-Hegelianism. However, you can always modify Cookies settings at any time. PutenleberkГ¤se WE KEEP OUR STAFF SAFE AND SERVICE ROBUST In the face of COVID, we are committed to keeping our people, our business partners, and our clients safe while supporting missions of national importance. Morrispragmatics tries to understand the relationship Sebastian Malec signs and their users, while semantics tends to focus on the actual objects or ideas to which a word refers, and syntax or "syntactics" examines relationships among signs or symbols. Duran, J. Views Read Edit View history. Pragmatics first engaged only in synchronic study, as Г¶sterreich Lotto to examining the historical development of language. Available On. Indexical meaning, on the other hand, is dependent on the context of the utterance and has rules of use. Action Event Paragmatic. Web Lotto De interpretations of John Dewey. Pragmatism and educational research. Die Bet 365.De darüber sind auf beiden Seiten sehr unterschiedlich und dies schafft Barrieren für die Zusammenarbeit, wie Vladimir Ulakhovich Drago Fiesta. Bayer, Paragmatic. Selected papers from NWAV 23 at Stanford. Second, although we are selecting for study children who are regarded as having pragmatic difficulties, the exact nature of those difficulties remains unclear. See how we leverage Pragmatic Agility® to help our client manage staff scheduling in real time. Learn More Insights. About Us PRAGMATICS delivers digital solutions that address some of the most complex issues facing our government leaders. Cuvântul pragmatism provine din termenul vechi grecesc „pragma” care însemna acțpandorasgardensg.comul a fost ridicat la rang filozofic în secolul XIX de americanul Charles Sanders Peirce sub numele de „pragmaticism”. Peirce a dezvoltat o concepție generală asupra adevărului. Pragmatic Play Limited, Pragmatic Play (Gibraltar) Limited, are licensed and regulated in Great Britain by the Gambling Commission under account numbers , Pragmatic Play Ltd is also licensed and regulated by the Malta Gaming Authority. Licence number MGA/B2B// Recognition notice RN// Type 1 & Type 3 Gaming Services.

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